Author Topic: Old Testament Heretics (and Saints)  (Read 2129 times)

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Offline eik

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Re: Old Testament Heretics (and Saints)
« Reply #8 on: July 01, 2021, 11:54:44 AM »

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King Solomon's apostasy

Continuing the specifically Egyptian themed heresies of Israel, the next Egyptian heresy involves King Solomon, and his Egyptian bride, a daughter of Pharaoh. One might have supposed that after the reign of King David, he would have been powerful enough to have enforced YHWH worship on her. It appears that he was unwilling to and that Israel during the days of his reign had to put up with hordes of foreign female idolators in their midst who were by no means devoted to the worship of YHWH. These women turned King Solomon's heart from YHWH worship to idolatry, leading in the reign of his son to the break up of Israel into two independent states, Judah and Israel, which will be covered later. Possibly the reason is that Solomon was afraid of his father-in-law in Egypt, or at least afraid of being seen to break a treaty with him. (If it really was the great Thutmose III - see below - perhaps he had reason to be. However it is probable that it wasn't Thutmose III because why would such a noted conqueror of foreigners give his daughter to King Solomon?).

Perhaps out of fear, perhaps out of the love of wealth that his peace treaties with Egypt etc. brought to Israel, Solomon, for all his wisdom, engaged in no little hypocrisy as to religious matters. He pretended that the City of David alone had to be kept idol-free, and so allowed the land of Israel to become defiled with foreign gods (like reserving Sundays for the practice of religion). He reserved Jerusalem for YHWH worship and kept his foreign wives out of Jerusalem, building houses and palaces for them and for Pharaoh's daughter outside Jerusalem (2 Chronicles 8:11, 1 Kings 9:24). Rohl reports that the palace of his Egyptian wife has been discovered outside of what would then have been Jerusalem, in an area in what is now the St. Etienne monastery, the Anglican 'Garden Tomb' and the German convent school, just to the North of Damascus gate.

1 Kings 11:
1    King Solomon, however, loved many foreign women besides Pharaoh's daughter--Moabites, Ammonites, Edomites, Sidonians and Hittites.
2    They were from nations about which the LORD had told the Israelites, "You must not intermarry with them, because they will surely turn your hearts after their gods." Nevertheless, Solomon held fast to them in love.
3   He had seven hundred wives of royal birth and three hundred concubines, and his wives led him astray.
4   As Solomon grew old, his wives turned his heart after other gods, and his heart was not fully devoted to the LORD his God, as the heart of David his father had been.
5   He followed Ashtoreth the goddess of the Sidonians, and Molech [1] the detestable god of the Ammonites.
6   So Solomon did evil in the eyes of the LORD; he did not follow the LORD completely, as David his father had done.
7   On a hill east of Jerusalem, Solomon built a high place for Chemosh the detestable god of Moab, and for Molech the detestable god of the Ammonites.
8   He did the same for all his foreign wives, who burned incense and offered sacrifices to their gods.
9   The LORD became angry with Solomon because his heart had turned away from the LORD, the God of Israel, who had appeared to him twice.
10   Although he had forbidden Solomon to follow other gods, Solomon did not keep the LORD's command.
11  So the LORD said to Solomon, "Since this is your attitude and you have not kept my covenant and my decrees, which I commanded you, I will most certainly tear the kingdom away from you and give it to one of your subordinates.
12  Nevertheless, for the sake of David your father, I will not do it during your lifetime. I will tear it out of the hand of your son.
13  Yet I will not tear the whole kingdom from him, but will give him one tribe for the sake of David my servant and for the sake of Jerusalem, which I

Egypt post Exodus up to the plunder of King Solomon's temple by Pharaoh Shishak 2 Chron 12:9
The scene in Egypt after the departure of the Israelites from Avaris and the land of Goshen was one of imminent chaos. The judgement of God on Egypt was very severe, and an Egyptian historian Manetho (3rd century BC - lived during the Ptolemy era) testifies to terrible times in Egypt under foreign domination in those days post-Exodus. Manetho  (quoted by Josephus) also calls the Pharaoh of the exodus "Tutimaeus" which Rohl identifies as Djedhotepre Dedumose, a Pharaoh who is known to have sought peace with the Hyskos invaders of Egypt.

The destruction of Pharaoh's army, the plagues and the departure of the Israelites, led to Egypt being wide open to attack by the Hyskos, who are identified with the biblical Philistines, or Amalekites. They invaded northen Egypt and ruled in those parts for hundreds of years leaving Egypt and her gods effectively powerless over the fledgling Israelite nation, which was preoccupied not with countering Egypt, but with the Philistines and legacy Canaanites who were ascendant (see the books of Judges & Samuel). This is why Egypt doesn't figure much in the bible until much later, when Egypt's power became ascendant once again in the 12th century BC, when the Philistines / Amalekites were ejected from Egypt and confined to their cities in Gaza. From there they figure prominently in wars up until the era of David and Saul.

Modern evangelical scholars such as Rohl date the Exodus to 1446 or 1445 BC, from 1 Kings 6:1 that says there were 480 years between the exodus and the second month of the fourth year of Solomon's reign, which can itself be dated by recourse to independently datable Assyrian history, although there are disputes even as to the date of his reign.

However there is a problem with identifying the Pharaoh of the Exodus with the secularly accepted Pharaoh of 1446 / 1445 BC, because Thutmose III (reigned ca. 1479?1426 BC in the secular chronology) was a vigorous Pharoah with many foreign conquests that are incompatible with the events of the Exodus. The secular or conventional chronology is partly based on attempts to correlate lunar and astral events depicted as occuring in the reigns of the Pharaohs, with scientific calculations of when those events might have occurred: an uncertain science involving many assumptions. Secular chronology derived this way is completely incompatible with biblical chronology. Biblical scholars who adopt an alternative Egyptian chronology, posit the reign of Thutmose III as much later, in the 12th or 11th centuries BC.

A lot of attention has been given as to who Solomon's father-in-law might have been (the one who sacked Gezer) and to who the Shishak/Sousakim of the bible might have been, who warred against King Solomon's son, Rehoboam, and plundered the temple (the fulfillment of prophecy re God's delayed wrath against Solomon for setting up idol places in Israel to please his foreign wives).

Anne Habermehl alleges that Egyptian murals show Thutmose III as sacking and burning Gezer. Although the conquest of Gezer. is depicted, the identity of the Pharaoh is uncertain. Anne Habermehl alleges Thutmose III may be Solomon's father-in-law. Amenhotep II his son had been posited as the biblical Shishak based on the likeness of one of his names in his royal titulary (Nebty name) (see Chronology and the Gezer connection? Solomon, Thutmose III, Shishak and Hatshepsut by Anne Habermehl).

On the other hand Rohl identifies the biblical name Shishak as a name play on the short form of Ramsesses II (i.e. his hypocoristicon) Sysa, or Shysha as pronounced in Semitic speaking Canaan. The Hebrew word Shakak (Akkadian shakaku) means to plunder. Shishak would mean "plunderer" in Hebrew i.e. the one who plundered Solomon's temple. (Cf. Nebuchardrezzar is refered to by Jeremiah as Sheshak because he plundered Judah jer 51:41). Rohl identifies Solomon's father-in-law as Pharaoh Haremheb, and as a commoner Pharaoh who would not have been afraid to marry off his daughters to foreigners for the sake of making political alliances (which seems an unlikely thing for Thutmose III to have done). Rohl identifies Haremheb as the conqueror of Gezer.

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Offline eik

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Re: Old Testament Heretics (and Saints)
« Reply #9 on: July 02, 2021, 08:15:10 AM »
King Solomon's apostasy (Pt II)

The story of Solomon is one of corruption by his wealth, and by the oppression of his own people, whose energies were not directed against their idolatrous enemies, but towards vanity projects in Solomon's honour.

The consequences of Solomon's treaty with Egypt and of the treaties he made with surrounding nations, and the legacy left by the military exploits of King David his father, led to unparalleled wealth for Solomon's Israel, on a par with the wealth of Ugarit and Tyre. Initially the Israelites were happy (1 Kings 4:20,21).

The outlying cities of the kingdom, Gezer, Hazor and Megiddo became major trading centres. Solomon received 666 talents of gold each year (1 Kings 10:14). He received a three year visit from the Queen of Sheba (Saba in Yemen) - 1 Kings 10.

This wealth allowed Solomon to undertaken massive building projects including the Lord's temple, his own palace, the terraces, the wall of Jerusalem, and Hazor, Megiddo and Gezer (1 Kings 9:15) as well as embellishing the temple's treasury, later plundered by Ramses II in the reign of his son. To finance such  extensive programs he developed at least four sources of national income (a) Taxation provided the bulk of his support, and each district  furnished  provisions  for  the  court and his family during one month  of the year:  1 Kings 4:27, (b) Tribute and gifts were received from other nations, notably Sheba and Tyre, (c) A toll was levied on Arabian goods going through his kingdom, (d) wealth came from trading relations with Syria and Africa: gold was procured from Ophir (Mozambique) by way of a trading fleet stationed at Ezion Geber (i.e Eliat) at the head of the gulf of Akaba.
He used many aliens and Israelites in his building projects (1 Kings 5:13).

The army was supplied with chariots, towns were refortified. Royal palaces were constructed in Jerusalem, and for his wives outside. The temple took seven years to construct, the principal palace in Jerusalem, and the palace for his Egyptian wife took 13 years to construct. The building techniques replicated those of surrounding Canaanite nations, such as in Ugarit. Huge numbers of people were engaged to ship wood from Lebannon. Despite the use of Canaanite slave labour, a heavy burden was imposed on his subjects to pay for all these projects. In many ways Solomon was the Israelite counterpart of Pharaoh Ramses II, also a massive builder of monuments in his own honour in Egypt.

Conscription (1 Kings 9:15) and taxation for his monumental building projects led to discontent amongst his subjects. It also led to the prophet Ahijah preaching against Solomon for the shrines he had erected to Chemosh the Moabite idol, and Milcom, the Ammonite idol.

Other sources of discontent was lack of equitable distribution. When  Solomon formed his 12 districts for the purposes  of taxation and supplying the needs  of his court, he  did  not  include Judah (1 Kings 4). Judah  apparently had tax-free status.  Most of the district appointees were also Judahites or pro-Judahites  (1 Kings 4:11-16). In addition Solomon's building projects were concentrated  in Judah (the temple, the palace,  the  Millo and wall of Jerusalem). That part of northern Israel that would become Israel was left out in the cold (source: Halpern).

It also led to discontent with Solomon in Egypt. Perhaps it was envy or perhaps there was a feeling he was shirking his military and treaty responsibilities with Egypt against the Hittites (who had occupied Syria) and their allies the Arameans. Ramses expedition against them had nearly been defeated at Kadesh, partly due to the tardiness of Solomon's army, and was unsuccessful in its objectives of defeating them. Solomon also gained enemies north and south, Rezon in Damascus and Hadad in Edom, rebelled. Hazor, then an Israelite frontier city, contained Egyptian idols in its palaces. Later on in Solomon's reign, it was attacked and destroyed by Rezon.

The picture then is of a fully secularized and temporizing king, even a philosopher king, unable to tear himself away from his pharaonic building and aggrandizement projects, with a kingdom disintegrating at the edges due to lack of attention to military affairs. The kingdom was also disintegrating spiritually from neglect, apostasy and favouritism, and politically due to internal rebellion incited by the priests such as Ahijah, incensed at Solomon temporizing with religion.

At the forefront of the internal rebellion was Jereboam, a military officer, who later sought sanctuary in Egypt with Ramses II until Solomon was dead. Per 1  Kings 12, Solomon's empire crumbled almost immediately after his death.

His empire, then, was proved proverbially to be built on sand.

(Thanks to Rohl (The Lost Testament) for some of this info.)

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Re: Old Testament Heretics (and Saints)
« Reply #10 on: July 03, 2021, 11:40:23 AM »
King Solomon's apostasy (Pt III)

The intention here is to trace the immediate consequences of King Solomon's apostasy and secularization of YHWH as just one of many gods in Israel, albeit the chief god of the Israelite pantheon at his death, as the god of the City of David.

The difference between being the only God, and being the chief god of a pantheon, is immeasurable. A chief god may be relegated in the pantheon's hierarchy, as politics dictates, whereas an only God has the right to exclude all other gods ab inito.

Solomon's insufferable inattention to the exclusive rights of YHWH entailed that at his death he did not select an exclusively Israelite successor from his presumably huge horde of offspring, many of whom would have been born to foreign women worshipping foreign gods. Why Rehobo′am was selected as his successor is unclear.  It presaged disaster for Israel:

1 Kings 11:1?13 "So the Lord became angry with Solomon because his heart had turned from the Lord God of Israel ... Therefore the Lord said to Solomon, "Because you have done this, and have not kept My covenant and My statutes, which I have commanded you, I will surely tear the kingdom away from you and give it to your servant. Nevertheless, I will not do it in your days, for the sake of your father David; I will tear it out of the hand of your son."

In respect of the character of Solomon's idol gods inspired by his wives:

In 1 Kings 11:5, we learn that "Solomon went after Ashtoreth the goddess of the Zidonians, and after Milcom the abomination of the Ammonites" which is in addition to  "Chemosh, the abomination of Moab, and for Molech also of the Ammonites." (1 Kings 11:7)

Ashtoreth, consort of Ba'al, was a fertility deity equivalent to Ishtar of the Babylonians. Astarte/Ashtoreth is the Queen of Heaven to whom the Canaanites burned offerings and poured libations (Jeremiah 44). Astarte, goddess of war and sexual love, shared so many qualities with her sister, Anath, that they may originally have been seen as a single deity.

Milcom played the role of the Ammonites' chief state god in parallel to YHWH's role in Israel. Milcom is attested in archaeology, such as on several Ammonite seals, where he is connected with bull imagery, as are both Baʿal and El associated with the bull in Ugaritic texts.

Molech is always associated with child sacrifice. Whether this be a god separate from Milcom, or just a reference to the particular rites connected with the worship of Milcom, is unclear, as not much is known of the Molech. It is safe to assume he is also connected with bull imagery. NB: originally the cult of Osiris may also have been linked to child sacrifice in very ancient Egypt. Osiris is also denoted by bull imagery, specifically the Apis bull in Egypt.

The first notable feature of Rehobo′am is that he was the child of Naamah an Ammonitess. Ammon was a Semitic-speaking nation east of the Jordan River, between the torrent valleys of Arnon and Jabbok, in present-day Jordan.The chief city of the country was Rabbah or Rabbath Ammon, site of the modern city of Amman, Jordan's capital. Milcom and Molech are named in the Hebrew Bible as the gods of Ammon.

The second notable feature of this semi-foreigner Rehobo′am was that like his father Solomon, he was a secularist. On the one hand he allowed YHWH worship to continue in Jerusalem 2Ch 11:17 "So the [Israelites - both of the Northern and Southern tribes] strengthened the kingdom of Judah, and made Rehobo′am the son of Solomon strong, three years: for three years they walked in the way of David and Solomon." But on the other hand he temporized like his father:

2 Chron 12:14 "And Rehobo′am did evil because he did not set his heart to seek the LORD."

2 Chron 12:5 "Then came Shemaiah the prophet to Rehobo′am (in the fifth year of his reign), and to the princes of Judah, that were gathered together to Jerusalem because of Shishak [i.e. Ramses II - the plundering Pharaoh], and said unto them, Thus saith the LORD, Ye have forsaken me, and therefore have I also left you in the hand of Shishak."

1 Kings 14:21-24 "Now Rehobo′am the son of Solomon reigned in Judah. Rehobo′am was forty-one years old when he began to reign, and he reigned seventeen years in Jerusalem, the city which the Lord had chosen out of all the tribes of Israel, to put his name there. His mother?s name was Na′amah the Ammonitess. And Judah did what was evil in the sight of the Lord, and they provoked him to jealousy with their sins which they committed, more than all that their fathers had done.  For they also built for themselves high places, and pillars, and Ashe′rim on every high hill and under every green tree; and there were also male cult prostitutes in the land. They did according to all the abominations of the nations which the Lord drove out before the people of Israel."

Rehobo′am was deemed to have been foolish from his youth. As Abijah the prophet later said of him, when speaking later on to Jereboam of the northern tribes,

2 Chron 13:4-7 "Ought ye not to know that the LORD God of Israel gave the kingdom over Israel to David for ever, even to him and to his sons by a covenant of salt. Yet Jeroboam the son of Nebat, the servant of Solomon the son of David, is risen up, and hath rebelled against his lord. And there are gathered unto him vain men, the children of Belial, and have strengthened themselves against Rehobo′am the son of Solomon, when Rehobo′am was young and tenderhearted, and could not withstand them."

The reign of Rehobo′am proved to be a total disaster. It had started out badly at his inaugeration at the Council of Shechem, the one sacredly historic city within the territory of the Ten Tribes. The people had demanded an alleviation from taxation. After rejecting the advice of the elders, and following that of his companions, he had insolently replied "My father made your yoke heavy, and I will add to your yoke: my father also chastised you with whips, but I will chastise you with scorpions."

Upon this Jereboam, the military officer who had rebelled against Solomon and sought refuge in Egypt in the intervening period but who had returned after the death of Solomon, seized command of the ten northern tribes and created a schism, enabling the plundering Pharaoh Rameses II to invade Judah in the fifth year of his reign and carry off all the treasures of Jerusalem, including those from the temple.

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Re: Old Testament Heretics (and Saints)
« Reply #11 on: July 04, 2021, 05:38:17 AM »
King Solomon's apostasy (Pt IV)

Continuing with the consequences of Solomon's apostasy for the ten Northern Tribes. Here we engage with Jeroboam and his golden calves, bulls or heiffers (the jury is still out).

The Northern Tribes rebelled to lessen their taxes to Judah, but still were permitted access to the temple in Jerusalem. However Jeroboam, the new ruler of Israel was jealous that if this continued, Israel might rejoim Judah and find an excuse to depose him. So Jeroboam decided to create alternative places of worship for Israel's ten northern and eastern tribes, at Bethel and at Dan, in which he installed golden calf-idols.

1 Kings 12:26?30 "Jeroboam thought to himself, "The kingdom will now likely revert to the house of David. If these people go up to offer sacrifices at the temple of the LORD in Jerusalem, they will again give their allegiance to their lord, Rehoboam king of Judah. They will kill me and return to King Rehoboam." After seeking advice, the king made two golden calves. He said to the people, "It is too much for you to go up to Jerusalem. Here are your gods, Israel, who brought you up out of Egypt." One he set up in Bethel, and the other in Dan. And this thing became a sin; the people came to worship the one at Bethel and went as far as Dan to worship the other."

Josephus described the calves as heiffers (i.e. cows), as does the Septuagint (Greek) version of the bible.

Jeroboam had spent many years in Eqypt and was undoubtedly familiar with all of Egypt's gods and cults. According to the Septuagint, Jeroboam's wife was an Egyptian princess called Ano, the eldest sister of Thekemina Pharaoh's wife; she was great among the king's daughters.

By the 10th century BC, bull worship & cow worship were extensively practiced throughout Egypt, not only in Memphis, where a living bull was worshipped as a manifestation of the ancient Ptah god.

Amun-Ra retained chief importance in the Egyptian pantheon throughout the New Kingdom and beyond (with the exception of the "Atenist heresy" under Akhenaten). Amun-Ra held the position of transcendental, self-created creator deity "par excellence"; he was the champion of the poor or troubled and central to personal piety. His position as King of Gods developed to the point of virtual monotheism where other gods became manifestations of him. With Osiris, Amun-Ra is the most widely recorded of the Egyptian gods.

In the New Kingdom's cultic literature was an important (relative to Egypt) book called "the Book of the Heavenly Cow" which in part, describes the reasons for the imperfect state of the world in terms of humankind's rebellion against the supreme sun god, Ra (who was also being linked with Amun in those days). In this book of the Book of the Heavenly Cow, divine punishment was inflicted through the goddess Hathor (denoted as a cow), with the survivors suffering through separation from Ra, who now resides in the sky on the back of Nut, another heavenly cow. To grasp the difference between these two heavenly cow gods is involved:

In Egyptian cultic-religion, gods and goddesses subsume the attributes and behaviors of another, until one is left with a "god/goddess of everything" but focus of nothing. To understand them requires research into their histories often thousands of year old, their original attributes and localities. It is an involved enterprise to grasp the intracacies of their separate attributes and relations, which involve complex mythologies over things as mundane as the sun traversing the sky.

Hathor and Nut were both considered sky goddesses by the Egyptians. In later times, Hathor subsumes much of Nut's imagery and function, as well as adding features from other goddesses from elsewhere (such as the conflation of Hathor and the Greek Aphrodite). Both are ancient in the history of Egypt, but they originally served quite distinct functions. Nut is the image of the starry night sky, spread over the Two Lands (i.e. upper and lower Egypt), represented by her brother/husband Geb. Their father, Shu, holds them apart, creating the space (Air) within which life can manifest. All of this results from Atum-Re's direction in the process of creating the world in which everyone lives, and is part of the mythic creation cycle of Iunu, the center of Ra's and the Ennead's cults. Nut also plays an even earlier part in creation myth as part of Tehuti's Ogdoad, a group of paired male/female beings who shape the "ether" to create the universe. Nut is the companion of Nu, the primeval waters. Her hieroglyph includes three jagged lines, the symbol for water. Her determinative symbol is a water pot, which some equate to the feminine womb, from which the Sun God emerges each morning (taken from

Hathor, on the other hand, has a much more specific association with the sky. This is clear from her hieroglyphic name, Hwt hr, meaning "house of Horus." Hathor is described as a daughter of Ra. The House of Horus in the sky is the specific path that the Sun 'Boat' travels across the heavens each day. At dawn, Hathor gives birth (rebirth) to Re between the gates of the East?the point at which the Sun rises to travel Hathor's path each day. This point or gate is symbolized as two hills with the Sun rising between them, or often two lions back to back, with the Sun rising between them, the latter representing Hathor's connection with Sekhmet and Bast (a triple goddess form) (taken from

Both goddesses are denoted by heiffers. In addition there was an "Isis Cow," being the animal which was the mother of an Apis bull animal chosen to be next manifestation of Ptah. The Apis bull was originally a god of fertility, then the herald of the god Ptah but, in time, was considered Ptah incarnate and ultimately an incarnate of a combined Ptah/Osiris and ultimately a Ptah-Sokar-Osiris amalgamation. Plutarch described the Apis as the ?fair and beautiful image of the soul of Osiris?. According to one myth, the Apis was the living embodiment of Ptah while he lived and Osiris when he died. Osiris was the Egyptian god and judge of the dead. In Greek times Apis became morphed into Serapis.

Other bull cults existed within Egpyt. The cult Buchis (Bekh, Bakha, Bakh) was also popular. The bull had a black face and a white body and was thought to be a manifestation of the Ka (life-force) of the war god Montu (Montju), worshipped in the region of Hermonthis. The cult was also associated with Ra and to a lesser extent, Osiris.

Many ancient peoples respected the bull as a symbol of strength and fertility. The worship of the bull was spread throughout Canaan, Syria and Crete and to a lesser extent Greece, where Zeus transformed himself into a white bull in one story. Even 'El' which the Hebrews adapted from the Canaanote 'El' as a common name for God was denoted by a bull.

So the bull / heiffer was a cynical attempt by Jeroboam to manipulate religious sensibility to worship himself, under the deceptive assimilation of the bull / heiffer image to a multitude of deities, even 'El' used by the Hebrews, as adapted from the Canaanite pagan deity, where El is called again and again Toru 'El ("Bull El" or "the bull god" - Wiki). In Canaanite mythology 'El' is known as the Father of Heaven / Saturn and his major son is Hadad (Father of Earth / Jupiter), is symbolized by the bull. As early as 3100 BC the king (not then known as Pharaoh as the two kingdoms were not united until circa 2686BC) is depicted in the form of a bull. . Hathor as the wife of Ra, denoted as a cow, was the 'divine' mother of the pharaoh.

Such religious manipulation and deception is referred to in the book of Revelation, e.g. Ch 13, where the beasts of antichrist are denoted as being worshipped under the forms of religion.

Revelation 13:1 "The dragon[a] stood on the shore of the sea. And I saw a beast coming out of the sea. It had ten horns and seven heads, with ten crowns on its horns, and on each head a blasphemous name. 2 The beast I saw resembled a leopard, but had feet like those of a bear and a mouth like that of a lion. The dragon gave the beast his power and his throne and great authority. 3 One of the heads of the beast seemed to have had a fatal wound, but the fatal wound had been healed. The whole world was filled with wonder and followed the beast. 4 People worshiped the dragon because he had given authority to the beast, and they also worshiped the beast and asked, "Who is like the beast? Who can wage war against it?"

"5 The beast was given a mouth to utter proud words and blasphemies and to exercise its authority for forty-two months. 6 It opened its mouth to blaspheme God, and to slander his name and his dwelling place and those who live in heaven. 7 It was given power to wage war against God?s holy people and to conquer them. And it was given authority over every tribe, people, language and nation. 8 All inhabitants of the earth will worship the beast?all whose names have not been written in the Lamb?s book of life, the Lamb who was slain from the creation of the world."


Jeroboam's reign was not free of trouble. On the accession of Abijah to the Southern Kingdom after Rehoboam, he faced a genocidal war with Judah, after which Israel became impotent. He also lost the towns of Bethel, Jeshanah, and Ephron, with their surrounding villages to Judah. Jeroboam's house was prophesied for destruction in 1 Kings 13 in a curious incident respecting a prophet and the altar at Bethel.

1 Ki 13:33 "Even after this, Jeroboam did not change his evil ways, but once more appointed priests for the high places from all sorts of people. Anyone who wanted to become a priest he consecrated for the high places."

A lot like some of the major secularist denominations of today then (i.e. "Anyone who wanted to become a priest he consecrated for the high place").

Baasha son of Ahijah (but not the prophet Ahijah) killed Nadab son of Jeroboam, who reigned over Israel two years. He then exterminated the whole house of Jeroboam.

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Re: Old Testament Heretics (and Saints)
« Reply #12 on: July 05, 2021, 12:12:39 PM »
King Solomon's apostasy (Pt V)

Here we will wrap up Israel's Egyptian apostasy and its immediate consequences for the tribes of Judah and Benjamin (the southern kingdom) and on the other ten tribes (the northern and eastern tribes)

This derived from King Solomon marrying an Egyptian wife for the sake of a "peace" treaty, when the power of Eqypt had become ascendant once again under the New Kingdom, according to the Egyptian "new chronology" of Rohl (19th pharaonic dynasty), or the "third intermediate period" (22nd pharaonic dynasty) according to secular or conventional dating. If it started with apostasy derived from a marriage alliance with the Egyptians, it ended with both Israel and Judea being given over to the ba'al worship of the Phoenicians of Sidon and Tyre through Jezebel, which again derived from a marriage alliance, this time of Ahab, again coincident with a one-off period of peace and wealth for the duration of this marriage alliance (although Ahab was eventually killed at Ramoth-Gilead by the Arameans, in the presence of Jehosephat of Judah).

In the Northern Kingdom, the rulers were from the first (i.e. Jeroboam) exclusively military officers with little interest in religious affairs except as a means of keeping the people in peaceful subordination to their rule. They allowed the people to do what they desired in religious affairs, provided it came under the appearance of State-religion (i.e. worship of the golden calves). They instituted what may be called 'secular religion' where anything was allowed. Baasha who had exterminated the house of Jereboam picked a fight with Judah by fortifying Ramah. Unexpectedly Asa, then king of Judah, bribed the Arameans under King Ben-Hadad to wage war with Israel, leading to the death of Baasha and his son Elah who was murdered. This allowed Asa to dismantle Ramah. Omri seized power in Israel after killing the murderer of Elah. He was the king who founded the city of Samaria as Israel's new capital (previously Tirzah). His son was the notorious King Ahab, who like Solomon, was not afraid to intermarry with foreigners to secure wealth and peace.

Initially the kings of the northern Israelite tribes derived their power from being allied with Egypt, whilst Egypt was hostile to Judah, while Egypt was still in its ascendancy. However soon Egypt began to decline in power and was itself invaded by asiatics, including even men from Judah under King Asa's long reign, and embroiled also in civil war. This left Israel vulnerable to attack by hostile Arameans to its north, and by the Canaanites, and eventually by an ascendant Assyrian power which had displaced and taken over the lands of the Mittani, situated between the Hittites and the Assyrians in northern Syria / Turkey. To prevent attack by Judah, which was not particularly hostile, Israel sought to enter into a marriage alliance with it in the days of Ahab and his son, which again proved disastrous in terms of spreading ba'al worship (see below).

In the mean time, to pre-empt potential aggressors Ahab, who succeeded Omri, made a marriage alliance with the Phoenicians of Sidon, who had also recently gained control of Tyre, in the form of the princess Jezebel, daughter of King Ittobaal (biblical Ethbaal). It was she who introduced ba'al worship to Israel, which presumably displaced the declining Egyptian bovine influence. King Ahab constructed a temple to ba'al and erected an Asherah pole for the worship of ba'al's consort.

A peace treaty with Judah was secured by a further matrimonial alliance between Ahab's and  Jezebel's daughter Athaliah (another wicked witch) and Jehoram of Judah, the son of king Jehoshaphat, the son of Asa. It was Athaliah who introduced ba'al worship to Judah during the period of her own usurpation of Judah's throne.

The peace treaties and matromonial alliances made Ahab a wealthy, if  entirely secularist, monarch in the vein of Solomon; but ultimately it was the Arameans whom Israel had most to fear from.  Jezebel met a similar fate as her son, after she was thrown from a building, with her corpse devoured by dogs. This occurred upon the rebellion of another Israelite army usurper, Jehu of Israel, who killed the then king of Israel Jehoram, son of Ahab and Jezebel, citing the sin of his father Ahab in stealing Naboth's vineyard and allowing Jezebel to execute Naboth.

In the southern kingdom of Judah, after the disasterous reign of Rehoboam, his son Abijah defeated Jeroboam of Israel in a genocidal war but shortly died prematurely, whereupon his son, the long lived King Asa reigned. In was in his reign that the Kingdom of Judah defeated the Egyptians, who had come on another plundering raid (2 Chron 14). After the death of Ramses II (new chronology) Egypt descended into civil war and foreign influence entirely ceased for its duration, whereupon the Arameans, Edomites and Moabites became the new threats.

Despite doing what was righteous compared to other kings, Asa was not free of sin. Three sins in particular are recorded. First he didn't demolish the high places, so allowed unlicensed forms of religious worship in Israel. 2Ch 15:17. Secondly, his bribe of the Arameans with temple gifts to invade Israel in the reign of King Basha greatly displeased God, and led to persecution of the prophets by Asa.

2Ch 16:7 "And at that time Hanani the seer came to Asa king of Judah, and said unto him, Because thou hast relied on the king of Syria, and not relied on the LORD thy God, therefore is the host of the king of Syria escaped out of thine hand.

2Ch 16:8 "Were not the Ethiopians and the Lubims a huge host, with very many chariots and horsemen? yet, because thou didst rely on the LORD, he delivered them into thine hand.

2Ch 16:9 "For the eyes of the LORD run to and fro throughout the whole earth, to shew himself strong in the behalf of them whose heart is perfect toward him. Herein thou hast done foolishly: therefore from henceforth thou shalt have wars.

2 Ch 16:10 "Then Asa was wroth with the seer, and put him in a prison house; for he was in a rage with him because of this thing. And Asa oppressed some of the people the same time."

So Asa sought peace with a bribe to the pagan idolators, but was rewarded with war by God: war not only against the Arameans, but against the Moabites and Edomites.

The third sin of Asa was to leave off seeking God at the end of his life, and entrust himself to doctors alone, whereupon he died.

2Ch 16:12 "And Asa in the thirty and ninth year of his reign was diseased in his feet, until his disease was exceeding great: yet in his disease he sought not to the LORD, but to the physicians.

2Ch 16:13 "And Asa slept with his fathers, and died in the one and fortieth year of his reign."

The son of Asa, Jehoshaphat, was a good king and rewarded for it. But like his father Asa, he made the cardinal mistake of seeking out treaties with the wicked kings of Israel, contracting for his son Jehoram to marry the wicked daughter of Jezebel, Athalia.

2Ch 19:2 "And Jehu the son of Hanani the seer went out to meet him, and said to king Jehoshaphat, Shouldest thou help the ungodly, and love them that hate the LORD? therefore is wrath upon thee from before the LORD."

2Ch 19:3 "Nevertheless there are good things found in thee, in that thou hast taken away the groves out of the land, and hast prepared thine heart to seek God."

Jehosephat was also involved in a war with Moab. It was during the last years of his reign, which he shared with his son Jehoram, that things began to fall apart.

Per 2 Kings 8:16 Jehoram took the throne at the age of 32 and reigned for 8 years. To secure his position Jehoram killed his six brothers, Azariah, Jehiel, Zechariah, Azaryahu, Michael, and Shephatiah (2 Chronicles 21:2).

Edom, then ruled by a viceroy of the king of Judah, revolted, and when Jehoram marched against this people, his army fled before the Edomites, and he was forced to acknowledge their independence. The town of Libnah revolted during his reign, according to 2 Chronicles 21:10, because he "had abandoned Yahweh, God of his fathers".

During his reign a raid by Philistines, Arabs and Ethiopians looted the king's palace, and carried off all of his family except for his youngest son Jehoahaz.

2 Chron 21:16,17: "The Lord aroused against Jehoram the hostility of the Philistines and of the Arabs who lived near the Cushites. They attacked Judah, invaded it and carried off all the goods found in the king?s palace, together with his sons and wives. Not a son was left to him except Ahaziah the youngest."

During this time the king received a letter of warning from the prophet Elijah. After this, Jehoram suffered a painful inflammation of the abdomen, and he died two years later (2 Chronicles 21:18?19).

Ahaziah was the son of Athalia and Jehoram. He was killed by Jehu of Israel, after the defeat of a combined Israelite / Judean force, in a battle with the Arameans. Jehu had been appointed to destroy the house of Ahab by Elisha. Because of the alliance between the house of belial (Ahab) and Judah, Judah was also given over to wickedness by God, for the duration of the usurpation of Athalia upon the death of her son Ahaziah, at the hands of Jehu. Ahaziah had been caught in the wrong place, in the very company of the king of belial, for upon Jehu's revolt against the house of Ahab, he was seen as an ally of the house of Ahab, and of Jehoram of Israel. He was killed in Israelite territory along with Jehoram of Israel.

cf.  According to Irenaeus, his teacher Polycarp told the story that John the Apostle rushed out of a bathhouse at Ephesus without bathing when he found out Cerinthus was inside, exclaiming, "Let us fly, lest even the bath-house fall down, because Cerinthus, the enemy of the truth, is inside!"

Offline eik

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Re: Old Testament Heretics (and Saints)
« Reply #13 on: July 06, 2021, 02:08:32 PM »
Ba'al Idolatry in the Bible (Introduction)

This ancient heresy seems to have arisen in Sumer and in disbelief in the one and only God, dating back to the tower of babel and to Nimrod (mentioned in the bible as the grandson of Noah). After the flood, God became replaced by manmade gods under mysteries that are made and kept not by God, but by humans. A key part of the worship of ba'al is the worship of the consort of ba'al, the goddess. Both derived originally from the elevation of ancient rulers such as Nimrod, into deities, both gods and goddesses, such as the later Babylonians practiced in abundance. They all had consorts simply because they were humans originally and remained human after deification.The ruler Nimrod, identified in the bible, was one such deity later elevated into a ba'al, by common consent.

According to the historian Eusebius, Semiramis was the wife of Nimrod. In the Sumerian language, her name is Sammur-amat, also known as Shammuramat or Sammuramat. According to less trustworthy traditions, Semiramis was said to be Noah's granddaughter, and both the mother and wife of Nimrod. This is inherently problematic as Semiramis was a much later Assyrian queen (reigned 811-806 BCE) who held the throne for her young son Adad Nirari III until he reached maturity. Although she was a powerful queen, the very association of Nimrod with Semiramis who lived in completely different eras shows the kind of nonsense that bedevils ba'al worship in all its forms and all attempts to investigate it. As to Nimrod and Semiramis, likely there were deified into gods and goddesses in different epochs, just like the Egyptian pantheon was forever mutating and combining its gods and goddesses.

In becoming linked to the cyclical nature of light and dark, winter and summer, ba'als also became nature gods and cyclical gods, living and dying with the seasons, or with the night time, such as Osris (god of the underworld was associated with the night in Egypt); whilst Tammuz, the Sumerian Dumuzi (The Flawless Young) was associated with the spring and summer, dying in the winter and then being brought back to life by Ishtar. Although his cult is attested for most of the major cities of Sumer in the 3rd and 2nd millennia BC, he made have been much older. Tammuz was associated with the Queen of Heaven, which was originally Inanna (the Sumerian goddess of sexual love) also known as Astarte or Ishtar.

Now the Hislop idea of an ancient trinity based on Nimrod and Tammuz and Semiramis seems to be in the nature of a total fabrication, perhaps misread into what the ancient Greeks such as Eusebius wrote about Semiramis. The promulgation and formulation of these trinity myths is all part of the mysterious nature of these ba'al gods, which often elude any precise definition.

An ode to such trinity myths are found in "THE TWO BABYLONS THE PAPAL WORSHIP PBOVED TO BE THE WORSHIP OF NIMROD AND HIS WIFE" by Alexander Hislop. The book peddles so many untruths even as it seeks to correlate these myths. Yet it contains at least two elements of likely truth, which are  found at the beginning of the book in Ch 1, these being that false religion or religious heresy the world over derives originally from the land of Bablylon, or Sumer, and that that the essense of all these false religions are intoxicating manmade mysteries or idolatries, and which eventually found their way into the papal church under the God the Father, God the Son (i.e. Jesus), and God the virgin mother trinity, where the Holy Spirit was confounded with the virgin mother.

Hislop, Ch1 (first page or so):

"In leading proof of the Babylonian character of the Papal Church,
the first point to which I solicit the reader's attention, is the
character of Mystery which attaches alike to the modern Roman
and the ancient Babylonian systems. The gigantic system of moral
corruption and idolatry, described in this passage under the emblem
of a woman with a "golden cup in her-hand " (Rev. xvii. 4),
"making all nations drunk with the wine of her fornication" (Rev.
xvii. 2 ; xviii. 3), is divinely called " Mystery, Babylon the Great
"(Rev. xvii. 5). That Paul's " Mystery of iniquity," as described
in 2 Thess. ii. 7, has its counterpart in the Church of Rome, no
man of candid mind, who has carefully examined the subject, can
easily doubt. Such was the impression made by that account on
the mind of the great Sir Matthew Hale, no mean judge of evidence,
that he used to say, that if the apostolic description were inserted in
the public " Hue and Cry," any constable in the realm would be
warranted in seizing, wherever he found him, the Bishop of Rome
as the Head of that " Mystery of iniquity." Now, as the system
here described is equally characterised by the name of " Mystery,"
it may be presumed that both passages refer to the same system.
But the language applied to the New Testament Babylon, as the
reader cannot fail to see, naturally leads us back to the
Babylon of the ancient world. As the Apocalyptic woman
has in her hand a cup, wherewith she intoxicates the nations,
so was it with the Babylon of old. Of that Babylon,
while in all its glory, the Lord thus spake, in denouncing
its doom by the prophet Jeremiah : " Babylon hath been a
golden cup in the Lord's hand, that made all the earth drunken :
the nations have drunken of her wine ; therefore the nations are
mad" (Jer. ii. 7). Why this exact similarity of language in regard
to the two systems ? The natural inference surely is, that the one
stands to the other in the relation of type and antitype. Now, as
the Babylon of the Apocalypse is characterised by the name of
"Mystery," so the grand distinguishing feature of the ancient
Babylonian system was the Chaldean " Mysteries," that formed so
essential a part of that system. And to these Mysteries, the very
language of the Hebrew prophet, symbolical though of course it is,
distinctly alludes, when he speaks of Babylon as a "golden cup."
To drink of " mysterious beverages '' says Salverte, was indispensable
on the part of all who sought initiation in these Mysteries. These
"mysterious beverages" were composed of wine, honey, water, and
flour." From the ingredients avowedly used, and from the nature
of others not avowed, but certainly used, there can be no doubt
that they were of an intoxicating nature ; and till the aspirants had
come under their power, till their understandings had been dimmed,
and their passions excited by the medicated draught, they were not
duly prepared for what they were either to hear or to see. If it be
inquired what was the object and design of these ancient
"Mysteries," it will be found that there was a wonderful analogy
between them and that "Mystery of iniquity" which is embodied in
the Church of Rome. Their primary object was to introduce
privately, by little and little, under the seal of secrecy and the
sanction of an oath, what it would not have been safe all at once and
openly to propound. The time at which they were instituted proves
that this must have been the case."

Offline eik

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Re: Old Testament Heretics (and Saints)
« Reply #14 on: July 07, 2021, 10:36:52 PM »
Ba'al Idolatry in the Bible (Introduction II)

We are informed by Wiki "Bel from Akkadian belu), signifying "lord" or "master", is a title rather than a genuine name, applied to various gods in the Mesopotamian religion of Akkad, Assyria and Babylonia. The feminine form is Belit 'Lady, Mistress'. Bel is represented in Greek as Belos and in Latin as Belus. Linguistically Bel is an East Semitic form cognate with the Northwest Semitic Baal with the same meaning. "

The history of ba'al originates in the lands of Sumer, (in the same region as the later Akkadian, Babylonian, and Assyrian empires), although the god was never known as "ba'al" in these regions. However all ba'al gods are derived from these lands

Sumer, the first civilization, comprised only the southern most parts of lower Mesopotamia, at the head of the Persian gulf where city states competed with each other for universal rule for centuries. The lands of Sumer were likely populated even before the days of the biblical Adam and his descendants. Adam's descendants would descend from Eden, located west of the southern part of the Caspian Sea, to Sumer and start building their cities in the lands of Sumer at the head of the Persian gulf.

Originally the Persian gulf extended much further north than it does at present, and some of the ancient Sumer cities, which are now very much inland, originally bordered on the sea, such as Eridu, the first such city (as postulated by many including Rohl).

From wiki "Eridu was long considered the earliest city in southern Mesopotamia. Located 12 km southwest of Ur, Eridu was the southernmost of a conglomeration of Sumerian cities that grew around temples, almost in sight of one another. These buildings were made of mud brick and built on top of one another. With the temples growing upward and the village growing outward, a larger city was built. In Sumerian mythology, Eridu was originally the home of Enki, later known by the Akkadians as E(y)a, who was considered to have founded the city. His temple was called E-Abzu, as Enki was believed to live in Abzu, an aquifer from which all life was believed to stem."

In fact Enki or Ea, from which derives 'Yah' of 'Yahweh' is considered by many, including Rohl (The Lost Testament) to be the original name for Adam's montheistic God, i.e. the true God. Although later incorporated into the Sumerian and Assyrian pantheons, as a god of magic, Enki, later know as Ea, can be posited as standing in direct opposition the later ba'al gods of the pagan pantheons that arose after Noah's flood.

From wiki "The exact meaning of [Enki's] name is uncertain: the common translation is "Lord of the Earth". The Sumerian En is translated as a title equivalent to "lord" and was originally a title given to the High Priest. Ki means "earth", but there are theories that ki in this name has another origin, possibly kig of unknown meaning, or kur meaning "mound". The name Ea is allegedly Hurrian in origin while others claim that his name 'Ea' is possibly of Semitic origin and may be a derivation from the West-Semitic root meaning "life" in this case used for "spring", "running water". In Sumerian E-A means "the house of water", and it has been suggested that this was originally the name for the shrine to the god at Eridu. It has also been suggested that the original non-anthropomorphic divinity at Eridu was not Enki but Abzu."

Again from wiki "Abzu is the name for fresh water from underground aquifers which was given a religious fertilising quality in Sumerian and Akkadian mythology. Lakes, springs, rivers, wells, and other sources of fresh water were thought to draw their water from the abzu. In this respect, in Sumerian and Akkadian mythology it referred to the primeval sea below the void space of the underworld (Kur) and the earth (Ma) above."

We see echoes of references to these waters in Gen 1:6 "And God said, "Let there be a vault between the waters to separate water from water." So God made the vault and separated the water under the vault from the water above it. And it was so. God called the vault "sky." And there was evening, and there was morning"the second day."

This is also seen to tie in with what God said to Moses in Exodus 3:13-14. "Moses then said to God, "Look, if I go to the Israelites and say to them, "The god of your ancestors has sent me to you," and they say to me, "What is his name?" what am I to tell them? God said to Moses, "I am who I am".

"Scholars have determined that Ea was vocalized as "Eya". So, when Moses stood before the burning bush and asked the name of the god of the mountain, did "God" really reply "I am who I am" (Heb. Eyah asher eyah)? This puzzling phrase has long perplexed many theologians here is our simple explanation. The voice of God simply replied "Eyah asher Eyah" - "I am (the one) who is called Eyah" " the name of Ea in its West Semitic (Hebrew) form."

Offline eik

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Re: Old Testament Heretics (and Saints)
« Reply #15 on: July 08, 2021, 11:51:41 AM »
Ba'al Idolatry in the Bible (Introduction III)

The principal inherent in ba'al is rebellion against God's rule, which started in Adam's and Eve's quest for knowledge by eating of the forbidden fruit, to which they were not entitled. Gen 6:1-8 informs that wickedness spread to the antediluvian generation in Mesopotamia in the form of a general rebellion against God. After the flood, wickedness again spread out from Mesopotamia amongst the ba'al worshippers who came after Noah, when human rulers began to be elevated into gods and goddesses, starting with Nimrod who is mentioned in the bible (of which more will be said later).

Now the bible makes clear than until man was declared to be in the image of God, no sin was attributable to him. The concept of rebellion against God is inherently linked to the perception of man being in the image of God, and was significantly re-inforced after the flood in God's command to Noah in Gen 9:6.  We should not see any rebellion against God before Adam's time, just because the biological homo-sapiens species was not yet declared to be in the image of God.

With this in mind, it is the case that archaeology reveals figuerines of mother goddesses dating back tens of thousands of years and to 4500BC in Sumer. It can be assumed that mother goddess worship was prevalent everywhere amongst biological homosapiens, long before the biblical decree that rendered "Adam in the image of God" Gen 1:27.

Adam and his wife Eve, and their lineage, were the end product of the sixth day of creation, which was succeeded by the seventh, the day of God's rest. It is not necessary to know exactly the point in  time when the sixth day ended, because the days of creation are defined in relation to God and his works. That is, it is up to God to define when they ended, not up to mankind to try to historicize them. All we can say is that the sixth day is recorded as ended back in Gen 2:1-3, with the creation of Adam and Eve and their lineage.

The oldest Summerian goddess, variously named Ninmah, Nintud/r or Belet-ili, is known by later Sumerian pantheological writings as the mother of the god Enki/Ea as well as the mother goddess who gave birth to the cosmos and all the gods. I assume that this implies that the ancient goddess cult was older in history than Enki/Ea worship.

It can be instructive to consider what constituted Adam and Eve as originally righteous in the sight of God, given what we know of the later extensive Sumerian ba'al-istic pantheon.

Ea was the personal name for Adam's God in Eden, whilst Enki was a formal title for Ea, which title became subsumed into the post-flood Sumerian pantheon. Adam was likely a priest-king in Eden who obeyed Ea. By the bible we are informed only of one act of obedience of Adam, the priest of Ea, which was his obedience to the command, "not to eat from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil". That is to say, Adam was to be content in his role as priest of Ea. He sinned not (i.e. by hankering after the pretend gnosis of the goddess worshippers who were widespread).

Gen 2:15-17 "The Lord God took the man and put him in the Garden of Eden to work it and take care of it. And the Lord God commanded the man, "You are free to eat from any tree in the garden; but you must not eat from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, for when you eat from it you will certainly die."

Whilst Adam remained obedient to Ea, he was given a wife Eve, whom he recognized as "bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh." This was a key communication from Ea which served to distinguish the priest-king of Ea from the prevalent mother goddess cult engaged in by other homosapiens, even in the environs of Eden perhaps. Who Eve was is unclear: may be she was a designate priestess of some mother goddess cult located in or near Eden before becoming Adam's wife, but became sanctified by recognizing her marriage to Adam.

A key part of the Sumerian mother goddess cult was an annual sexual rite between the king and the priestess of the goddess cult. May be it was that Adam, who was undoubtedly a priest-king, recognized Eve (whose name means approximately "she who makes live"), as his permanent wife by the command of Ea, and may be it was Eve who instead of becoming a priestess of the goddess cult, as she was otherwise destined to become, recognized Adam as her husband. The consequences of the divine decree lay in Gen 2:24,25 "[on account of what Adam received from Ea] a man leaves his father and mother and is united to his wife, and they become one flesh. Adam and his wife were both naked, and they felt no shame."

That is to say, Ea demanded from the very beginning, sexual chastity and adherence to the "one in flesh" notion as between a man and a woman. The two are almost synonyms: worship of Ea is synonymous with sexual purity. So Eve instead of becoming a cultic priestess, became the wife of Adam, with Adam continuing as the king-priest of Ea. Both worshipped Ea.

As for Eve being made from the rib (or "side" as the Hebrew really means) of Adam, there is uncertainty, but there is also an allusion to it in a Sumerian text. A pagan Sumerian myth "Enki and Ninhursag" (Ninhursag meaning Lady of the Mountain - perhaps an indication of where Eve came from in Eden in which there were mountains) tells the story of the beginning of the world in the garden of paradise known as Dilmun.

Orientalist Samuel Noah Kramer writes of this myth: "Perhaps the most interesting result of our comparative analysis of the Sumerian poem is the explanation which it provides for one of the most puzzling motifs in the biblical paradise story, the famous passage describing the fashioning of Eve, "the mother of all living", from the rib of Adam - for why a rib? Why did the Hebrew storyteller find it more fitting to choose a rib rather than any other organ of the body for the fashioning of the woman whose name, Eve, according to the biblical notion, means approximately "she who makes live". The reason becomes quite clear if we assume a Sumerian literary background, such as that represented by our Dilmun poem, to underly the biblical paradise tale; for in our Sumerian poem, one of Enki's sick organs is the rib. Now the Sumerian word for "rib" is ti (pronounced tee); the goddess created for the healing of Enki's rib was therefore called in Sumerian Nin-ti "the Lady of the rib". But the Sumerian word ti also means "to make live" as well as "the Lady of the rib". In Sumerian literature, therefore, "the Lady of the rib" came to be identified with "the Lady who makes live" through what may be termed a play on words. It was this, one of the most ancient of literary puns, which was carried over and perpetuated in the biblical paradise story, although there, of course, the pun loses its validity, since the Hebrew words for "rib" and "who makes live" have nothing in common."
(taken from
In point of fact "Enki and Ninhursag" likely represent Adam and Eve subject to ba'alification, i.e. elevated into the status of deities by their sinful Sumerian descendants. The Sumerian creation myth is the pagan version of Genesis. It may be that in this myth, Adam's sick "side" is a metphor for his lonelines. The bible records that God cured Adam's loneliness as priest-king of Ea by giving him Eve as a wife, who would become "the mother of all the living", not in the capacity of a mother goddess, but in the capacity of Adams wife, where the "living" means, in a biblical context, not the biological species of homo sapiens, but those who worship Ea. Eve as the healer of Adam's lonliness recognized she was forever bound to Adam by Ea.

The pagan Sumerian myth approaches the issue of creation from a non-spiritual point of view, seeing only the creation of the material, the race of mankind as a genre. Yet the bible seeks to additionally make a distinction between those who acknowledge and obey Ea (the living) and those who do  not (the dead). 1 Timothy 5:6 KJV "But she who lives for pleasure is dead even while she is still alive."

The Jews regarded the Gentiles as peoples of a pre-Adamic spiritual state, although this was not true after the flood, because of God's decree to Noah. Nonetheless that they contrasted the Gentiles with animals, even up to the days of Jesus, shows the origins of the Gentiles in these ancient goddess worshippers before Adam.

So Adam's righteousness lay in his submission to God's (Ea's) decree. Eve's status as the mother of all the living depended on her remaing one in flesh with Adam, being her worship of Ea.

What was Eve's sin? We don't know. May be it was backsliding into the old mother goddess cult in order to try to acquire greater knowledge, because she was envious of those that she had left behind. May be it was that Adam followed her in this, or allowed her to backslide, which on Eve's part, clearly constituted unfaithfulness on her part, even if it didn't amount to unchastity.

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