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Offline eik

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Re: Old Testament Heretics (and Saints)
« Reply #16 on: July 09, 2021, 01:30:15 PM »

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Ba'al Idolatry in the Bible (Introduction IV)
_________________________________

In the Sumerian pantheon legends we have the post-flood ba'alification of both Adam and Eve and their descendants, possibly with germs of truth such as is reflected in the names of Ninhursag, and again of Ninti or Nin-ti, one of the eight goddesses of healing who was created by Ninhursag to heal Enki's body. Her specific healing area was the rib (Sumerian ti means both 'rib' and 'to make live').

As is so often the case with ba'al-ification, sons and fathers are combined, so that Dumuzid or Dumuzi later known as Tammuz, the ba'al son of the goddess Innana (who the Greeks later confusingly named Semiramis after a much later female Assyrian ruler), was equally a manifestation of the ba'al-ified husband of the goddess, i.e. Nimrod.

In Sumer it seems that Eve is manifested in the ba'al legend both as Ninhursag, the original Sumer goddess, husband of Enki (i.e. Adam) and also as Nin-ti, the daughter of Ninhursag, given birth to cure Enki's rib (i.e. Adam's rib).

Such pantheons are post-flood adaptations of ante-diluvian Sumerian history, where ancestors are elevated into gods. However perhaps one ancestor was never based on just one human, but crept into everything that was worshipped as God. This was the ancient mother-goddess or nature goddess concept, signifying the worship of the creature, rather than the creator (cf. Roms 1), and which is said to inevitably leads to sexual immorality.

In the first Sumerian manifestation, Ninhursag is linked to Enki ("lord of the land") also known as Ea (lord of water). As the goddess concept predated Adam and Enki, so Ninhursag was given priority of Enki and yet was his consort. It is likely that Ninhursag's name derives from her association with Enki, who was associated with a spring and a pool on a mountain in Eden, so that Ninhursag's name is linked to the mountain on which Enki or Ea appeared to Adam and Eve; and perhaps also was where they became united. There are quite a few biblical unexplained biblical references to the "mountain of the Lord". Rohl speculates that the original mountain of the Lord was in Eden, and so here we have the false goddess being associated with the mountain of the true God, Enki or Ea.

The babylonian ziggurats and others the world over are possibly attempts to replicate the mountain of the lord in Eden.

Rohl (the Lost Testament) speculates that the expulsion of Adam and Eve from the garden of Eden and the migration of them and their descendants to Sumer was coincident with, even motivated by, the salination of the Black Sea, which was originally a fresh water lake with a much lower surface, but which became salinated when the Bosporus Strait was breached at the end of the last ice-age. "Black Sea deluge" is a hypothesized catastrophic rise in the level of the Black Sea circa 5600 BC due to waters from the Mediterranean Sea breaching a sill in the Bosporus Strait (wiki). This would have given rise to large movements of people seeking out new areas in which to live.

We read in Genesis 4:17 that "Cain knew his wife, and she conceived and bore Enoch. When he built a city, he called the name of the city after the name of his son, Enoch." The city of Uruk in the land of Sumer, started sometime before 4000 BC is a strong contender for the city that Cain built. The city of Uruk (the biblical Erech) was the largest city in the world at its height.

It is possible that the later goddess Inanna was again another transposition of the mother goddess concept at Uruk, this time by an association with Enoch. She was known as the "Queen of Heaven" and was the patron goddess of the Eanna temple at the city of Uruk, which was her main cult centre. In some myths she is the daughter of Enki, so she may have been originally a daughter linked to Cain's lineage and to Enoch.

"E-anna was a district in Uruk that centred around the temple to Inanna at Uruk. If we place a "k" at the end of E-anna we see E-annak which looks like "Enoch", a point made by R.J. Fischer author of "Historical Genesis."

"L.A. Waddell who studied Sumerian, and wrote "Makers of Civilization in Race and History" translated Uruk as Enoch from the Sumerian Unug. He writes, "The City of Enoch, we have seen, is admitted by all the leading Biblical experts to be identical with the City Unug or Unuk and latterly Uruk, of the Sumerians, and identical with "Erech" of the later Hebrew Old Testament texts."
https://www.genesisforordinarypeople.com/faq/cain-s-city

Ianna would become the inspiration for every other fertility or mother goddess the world over.

The city of Eridu, as previously mentioned, with its temple to Enki, may have been the city in which Adam and Eve lived after their employment in the garden of Eden had been terminated, or at least was a city in which their descendants lived. The city may have been called Eridu after Enoch's son Irad (see Genesis 4:18). The Sumerian King List, a list of rulers before the flood, describes Eridu as the first city in the southern Mesopotamian area that had a king. In Sumerian, it was known as "Nun-ki" meaning "the mighty city" (a name later transferred to the "mighty city" of Babylon). The original post-flood tower of babel was likely situated in Eridu. Enoch son of Seth had been posited by many as a priest of the Eridu temple before the flood.

There is plenty of pseudepigraphical material about the other Enoch, son of Seth, and his wisdom. Rohl also posits that he was a high priest of Enki at the Eridu temple. Enoch figures heavily in Masonic literature.

"...It is almost certain that the biblical 'Enoch' was the equivalent of the Sumerian first priest, EN.ME.DUR.AN.KI ('High Priest of the ME's -  tabletlike objects on which the scientific data were inscribed - of the Bond Heaven-Earth'), the man from the city Sippar taken heavenward to be taught the secrets of Heaven and Earth, of divination, and of the calendar. It was with him that the generations of astronomer-priests, of Keepers of the Secrets, began."
     - Zecharia Sitchin, When Time Began

"The children of Seth "also were the inventors of that peculiar sort of wisdom which is concerned with the heavenly bodies, and their order. And that their inventions might not be lost before they were sufficiently known, upon Adam's prediction that the world was to be destroyed at one time by the force of fire, and at another time by the violence and quantity of water, they made two pillars, the one of brick, the other of stone: they inscribed their discoveries on them both, that in case the pillar of brick should be destroyed by the flood, the pillar of stone might remain, and exhibit those discoveries to mankind; and also inform them that there was another pillar of brick erected by them. Now this remains in the land of Siriad to this day."
     - Flavius Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews Bk I, Ch II, Sn 3

See further http://www.faculty.umb.edu/gary_zabel/Courses/Phil%20281b/Philosophy%20of%20Magic/Arcana/Kabbalah/enoch.html

https://www.genesisforordinarypeople.com/faq/cain-s-city
http://www.faculty.umb.edu/gary_zabel/Courses/Phil%20281b/Philosophy%20of%20Magic/Arcana/Kabbalah/enoch.html

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Offline eik

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Re: Old Testament Heretics (and Saints)
« Reply #17 on: July 10, 2021, 09:43:51 PM »
Ba'al Idolatry in the Bible (Introduction V)
_________________________________

At some point in time the Enki/Ea God of Adam and Eve gave way to a high trinity of gods, very roughly fulfilling the roles of God The Father, the Word, and the Holy Spirit. The Father became denoted by Anu, the Sky god, the Holy Spirit by Enlil, God of the Wind or Breath, although the meaning of "lil" is still argued over, and Enki/Ea with the Logos through the water connection (1 John 5:6) stemming from his Abzu temple (House of the Aquifer) at Eridu.

However in their pantheistic relations and activities as found in the Sumerian writings, these gods are unrecognizable as the biblical trinty, not least because they all had consorts. Thus the consort of Enki is Ninhursag (also known as Ki), that of Enlil is  Ninlil, and that of Anu is Ki. However Anu seems to have had no cult centre after being usurped by the goddess Ianna at Uruk (and possibly no consort either).

Of particular interest to Christians are the Sumerian writings about Noah's flood. Here Enlil is alleged to have decided on bringing the flood (acting in the role of the Spirit of the Father), whilst Enki/Ea warned Utnapishtim (Atrahasis) and his family of the coming flood and told him to build the ark (acting in the role of the Logos-Saviour). Utnapishtim is synonymous with Noah of the bible (can be derived from the 3rd and 4th letters of Ut-na-pishtim). The flood is well known in antiquity, and the ark was believed to have come to rest in Mount Judi in the Zagros / Armenian Highlands (i.e. not Mt. Ararat), and where from the site of which bitumen supposedly from the ark was regularly collected in antiquity (per Rohl).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mount_Judi.

The bible says that Noah's Ark landed on the "mountains of Ararat", according to Genesis 8:4. Many historians and Bible scholars agree that "Ararat" is the Hebrew name of Urartu, the geographical predecessor of Armenia; they argue that the word referred to the wider region at the time and not specifically to Mount Ararat. The phrase is translated as "mountains of Armenia" (montes Armeniae) in the Vulgate, the fourth century Latin translation of the Bible. Ararat was the name of the country at the time when Genesis was written, not specifically the mountain. Arnold wrote in his 2008 Genesis commentary, "The location 'on the mountains' of Ararat indicates not a specific mountain by that name, but rather the mountainous region of the land of Ararat.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mount_Ararat#Resting_place_of_Noah's_Ark

This "high trinty" of competing gods was located in different cities, Enki at Eridu, Enlil at Nippur, and Anu at Uruk. Anu's primary role in the Sumerian literature is as the ancestor of the Anunna (Anunnaku, Anunnaki), the major deities of Sumerian religion. His primary cult center was at the Eanna temple in the city of Uruk, but, by the Akkadian Period (c. 2334-2154 BCE), his authority in Uruk had largely been ceded to the goddess Inanna, the Queen of Heaven (the one known in the Sumerian literature as an arrogant and malicious goddess).

Thus the character of the gods and goddesses deteriorated with men's wickedness, becoming ever more anthropomorphic with time. I suppose in the end it was all about one god competing against another god, to see which god was the greatest, rather than in seeking for a unity with truth.  Thus the temple of Enki at Eridu underwent numerous reconstructions, becoming ever bigger in the process, doubtless with the aim of creating a good external impression. It was Enki's temple at Eridu that, after the flood, would become the original tower of Babel.

Nippur was always a sacred city, not a political capital. Enlil (or Ellil) was revered here for thousands of years. Even after 1800 BC, when the Babylonians made Marduk the most important god in southern Mesopotamia, Enlil was still revered and kings continued to seek legitimization at Nippur, and the city remained the recipient of pious donations. Potentially the Western Semitic 'El' deity as espoused by Abraham came from Enlil of Nippur (which is near Ur). (See also https://oi.uchicago.edu/research/projects/nippur-sacred-city-enlil-0)

Rohl associates the Anunna (i.e. Anunnaki) with the descendants of Adam and Eve who came down to Sumer. Later they became the "deified" Anunna.  In the earliest texts, the term is applied to the most powerful and important deities in the Sumerian pantheon. Rohl further identifes these Anunna, the forefathers of Sumerian civilization with the Nephilim (giants) of the bible.

It seems to me that the latter may have more than a germ of truth. The meaning of the term Anunna changed after the Old Babylonian period, when it was used to describe the gods of the netherworld. The Anunnaku are sometimes invoked in curse formulas and also appear in incantations. In the Epic of Gilgames, the phrase "judge of the Anunnaki" is mentioned as a title of Gilgames. This is possibly a reference to Gilgames's function as a judge in the netherworld. The biblical book of Jude 1:6 tells us that these angels / demons who descended await judgement. The bible tells us that they were offspring of (fallen) angels and women, Genesis 6:4, whereas the giants who inhabit Canaan in Numbers 13:33, who are their descendants, are by then Canaanites sinners and ba'al worshippers, identified with the Anakim (bearing a lexical resemblance to the Anunnaki).

Possibly the Anunnaki, the original Adamites, were surplanted by the offspring of these fallen angels and women, which coincided with the rise of anthropomorphic pantheons. What seems to be clear is that the increase in wickedness leading to Noah's flood coincided with the corruption of belief in Adam's single deity Ea (i.e. Logos) with multitudes of anthromorphic gods and goddesses, including aggressive and demonic ones such as Ianna given over to usurping and corrupting other gods, which may have reflected Uruk city's dominance. Enki/Ea became consequently sidelined in practice.

Incidentally, the flood didn't have to cover the whole world or even the highest mountains. The usual Genesis translation is open to a wide variation of meaning. Rohl posits the flood covered over all the temple mounds of the plain of Shinar which the bible calls mountains, and is identified with the volcanic eruption in the Aleutian Islands 3113 or 3119BC, and with a prior famine in Sumer due to the sun being obscured by volanic ash for six years followed by torrential rain and flooding (impossible to verify as no references given and no info on WWW as to any of this).

Rohl posits the length of time from Adam to the flood as circa 2250 years with Adam commencing 5375BC.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mount_Judi
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mount_Ararat#Resting_place_of_Noah's_Ark
https://oi.uchicago.edu/research/projects/nippur-sacred-city-enlil-0

Offline eik

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Re: Old Testament Heretics (and Saints)
« Reply #18 on: July 11, 2021, 10:24:06 PM »
Ba'al Idolatry in the Bible (Introduction VI)
_________________________________

A few more thoughts on the Anunnaki and the biblical Nephilim, defined in the bible as existing concomitantly with the "sons of God" who had children with the "daughters of men."  What we know of the  Anunnaki is (a) that were first of all wise men linked to Enoch, and (b) they were later deified into "sons of God" as in modern day cargo cults (e.g. deification of Prince Philip).

From wiki "The name Anunnaki is derived from An, the Sumerian god of the sky. The name is variously written "da-nuna", "da-nuna-ke4-ne", or "da-nun-na", meaning "princely offspring" or "offspring of An".
The Anunnaki were believed to be the offspring of An and his consort, the earth goddess Ki. Samuel Noah Kramer identifies Ki with the Sumerian mother goddess Ninhursag, stating that they were originally the same figure. The oldest of the Anunnaki was Enlil, the god of air and chief god of the Sumerian pantheon."

An and Ninhursag could themselves be construed as Adam and Eve deified (as has been postulated peviously of Enki and Ninhursag). There is a further connection between Adam and the Anunnak in the Sumerian 'Adapa' legend. Adapa was a Mesopotamian mythical figure who unknowingly refused the gift of immortality. The story, commonly known as "Adapa and the South Wind", is known from fragmentary tablets from Tell el-Amarna in Egypt (around 14th century BC) and from finds from the Library of Ashurbanipal, Assyria (around 7th century BC). (Wiki). Unna-Adapa (Enoch of the line of Adam) was the name of the first sage of Eridu and linked to the Annunnaki (see below).

These Nephilim are startling in  their biblical ambiguity, as between whether they are somehow connected to, or identical with, the "sons of God" and their progeny, or whether their co-existence with the "sons of God" is merely an accident of history.

Gen 6:1 "When human beings began to increase in number on the earth and daughters were born to them,
Gen 6:2 "the sons of God saw that the daughters of humans were beautiful, and they married any of them they chose."
Gen 6:3 "Then the LORD said, ?My Spirit will not contend with humans forever, for they are mortal; their days will be a hundred and twenty years.?
Gen 6:4 "The Nephilim were on the earth in those days, and also afterward, when the sons of God went to the daughters of humans and had children by them. They were the heroes of old, men of renown."

It is an exclusively Jewish tradition that sees the "sons of God" in Gen 6:4 as fallen angels whom took on the bodies of men to marry human women, but Rohl sees another possibility which I think should be at least allowed as an alternative interpretation, which is that the "sons of God" refers to the ancient Adamic line which practised monotheism. Upon their later idolatrous deification (ba'alification) by their later descendants, their consorts naturally became elevated as co-deities.

The Nephilim could be identified with the progeny of the mixed or polygamous marriages between the "sons of God" with non-Adamic human beings in the vicinity of Sumer.

Adam is descibed as a "son of God" in Luke 3;38. There is no reason why his immediate progeny should not also have been deemed "sons of God" given their long lives and immense contribution to knowlege, and their following in the footsteps of Adam and Eve who practised monogamy at the command of Ea or Eya.

As already related there is a strong tradition and evidence for the Adamic line being the founders of the cities of Sumer.

This is what Rohl says" "The Akkadian legends (as well as the Mesopotamian historian Berossus) tell of a great sage, the first of the seven apkallu (sumerian ab.gal) sent by Eya to bring the arts of civilization to Mankind. He came from the east in the company of the Annunnaki. On the islands in the marshlands of Sumer the Anunnaki established the first cities in Mesopotamia, and their spiritual leader - the first of the apkallu - set up kings to rule over the settlers. This sage's name was Unna-Adapa - the biblical Enoch."

He further says "Uanna was the pashishu priest of Enki/Eya' sacred shrine at Eridu. His name is written in Hebrew (i.e. West Semitic) in the form of Hanok, but which in the Semitic language of Mesopotamia (i.e. East Semitic) would have been transcribed Anok or Unuk (without the initial aspirate so typical of West Semitic, which although written, was unpronounced). In Sumerian the final 'k' of this name is what is called an amissible consonant which was only voiced when followed by a grammatical element which began with a vowel. The original Sumerian version of Enock's name was therefore pronounced something like Anna, Unu or Uanna."

Rohl further points out that the bible is silent where it comes to the settlement of Uanna/Enoch and the legendary Anunnaki in the primeval land of Sumer...in fact the only reference is in Gen 11 that "the people came from the east and found a valley in the land of Shinar where they settled."

Why is the bible so silent? Possibly because it didn't want to contribute to the deification of these ancestors and founders of civilization, as was so common in Sumer and Babylon.

Now the land to the east of Shinar was called Susiana. Based evidence of trade with this land, and other lands in the vincinity of Sumer, there were other indigenous human beings already in Susiana and the surrounding lands when the Adamites arrived, before they migrated to Sumer. Rohl suggests that the two groups intermarried and in effect became one in time.

Hence we have an alternative historical explanation for Gen 6:4 that doesn't involve fallen angels, but the fallen Anunnaki, i.e. the descendants of Adam. They were originally far more powerful and knowledgeable that the indigenous humans around them, as having come from Eden, the paradise of God, and learning their civilization and city building skills from God.

They were able to pick and choose those they desired for their wives from the indigenous populations on their migrations, including indulging in polygamy, which led to wickedness and lack of an inability to forgive.

The evidential association of polygamy with wayward morality is early made by the bible in Gen 4:19 "Lamech married two women, one named Adah and the other Zillah." Then further in Gen 4:23,24 "Lamech said to his wives, "Adah and Zillah, listen to me; wives of Lamech, hear my words. I have killed a man for wounding me, a young man for injuring me. If Cain is avenged seven times, then Lamech seventy-seven times"

Lamech was only 6 generations from Adam. This suggests that wickedness spread over the earth via the descendants of Adam, whom had been given knowledge of the true God, via their polygamy with indigenous humans who were initially at least, their cultural, scientific and spiritual inferiors.

The original descendants of Adam were later known as the Anunnaki in Sumer, and deified by a Sumer population increasingly homogenous and removed from the original spiritual religion of the Adamites.

The first generations of children of these intermarriages would have been kings and rulers of the cities, built by the Adamites; and perhaps later these children would become identified with those who chose to follow the warrior tradition, rather that the priestly tradition of Enoch. At the very least they were synonymous with haughty nobles.

These warrior children, being directly descended from the original "sons of God" were deemed men of renown, described as giants (i.e. Nephilim). Perhaps they were. Yet they would not have been the godly men associated with the "sons of God" but rather far removed from them, yet retaining their physical characteristics.

They were candidates for deification as malicious gods. They were the bad Anunnaki, and their deeds later cast as worthy of judgement by the later Sumerian legends. They were the type for the later Babylonian and Assyrian warlords, whom would come to be characterized by Nimrod after the flood.






Offline eik

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Re: Old Testament Heretics (and Saints)
« Reply #19 on: July 12, 2021, 08:39:05 PM »
Ba'al Idolatry in the Bible (Introduction VII)
__________________________________

My summing up of the antediluvian epoch is as follows:

Monogamous Adam and Eve emerged out of Eden sinners and mortal, but with their chastity intact and likely  advanced in the sciences, practical knowledge, spirituality as contrasted with human beings outside of Eden.Their worship of Ea was characterized by monogamy and sexual chastity. They gave birth to sons and daughters. There is nothing to suggest that expulsion from Eden caused their spiritualityto cease, although in Eden was the presence of God. The process of expulsion may not have been instantaneous as it encompassed a large area. Eden, a geographically identifiable place, was also rich in material blessings, as is known from the geography of the place. There was also a mountain with a spring and likely a pool there, which was linked with Adam and Eve. The reason that Adam and Eve may have been expelled to the East is because other tribes or peoples had displaced them from the West linked to the salinization of the Black Sea by the Sea breaching the Bosphorus Strait, and other fierce tribes in the vincinity of the East gate barred any return.

Adam may have been a king-priest of his tribe which may have joined with Eve's tribe, a different tribe to Adam's. Eden was big enough for different tribes to co-exist. Alternatively they may just have been individuals on their own, but it has to be realized that there were many other homosapiens in the world by the time of Adam and Eve. Being in the presence of God had many benefits in terms of advancing knowledge, greatly elevating them above the other homosapiens, so that they became as "sons of God."

Cain was advanced enough to be able to build cities as well as till the ground. "Cain" uses the same Hebrew root as "Kenite" and means a "smith." So Cain was also a metal worker. "Civilization skills" became God's assigned purpose for him and the reason he was protected by God. This was his role, and the role of his descendants, i.e. to construct and advance civilization, and which is why he was protected, even after he had killed Abel in a fit of pique where God preferred Abel's sacrifice. Why did God prefer Abel's sacrifice? Because it comprised the best portion of his flock, and not just "some" of his flock.

At that time, God said to Cain, Gen 4:7 "If you do what is right, will you not be accepted? But if you do not do what is right, sin is crouching at your door; it desires to have you, but you must rule over it."

So Cain and his descendants became consigned to a constant struggle with sin. However they were not precluded from salvation. On the other hand some of the descendants of Seth were appointed priests of God through Enos or Enosh (whom I have also referred to as Enoch). It was after Enos, Seth's son: that "men began to call upon the name of the LORD" Gen 4:16.

By this time the descendants of Adam were installed in Sumer where they were kings and priests.

However they began to practice polygamy with the indigenous populations, and became fierce and warlike (Lamech). They began to be seen as objects fit for judgement. Although they still purported to worship the same God as Adam, they manipulated the character of God, in a political and deist fashion, and so limited his powers and circumscribed his worship.

Competition arose between the city states as to whose god was the greatest, where the struggle became political and not religious. With the span of time, the knowlege of God became lost, and  sexual immorality and violence (Gen 6:13) increased commensurately. Gods was confused with human beings, and was given human attributes.

The Adamic founders of Sumer themselves became role models for gods and the subject of myths by their descendants. Thes myths displaced worship of the true God, although it may have continued for a long time at Eridu. This is similar to religious denominations of today revering their founders even over God himself. In some the founder is made equivalent to God (cf. Allah is the real deity of Islam). In the fulness of time even later kings were deified such as Gilgamesh of Uruk, equivalent to the Greek Hercules. Uruk seems to have been a particularly wayward place in terms of religion, in allowing the worship of Inanna.

The Sumerians traced their lineage to the "sons of God," whom they deified in the course of time. In the Sumerian King List, one of the early kings of Uruk is described as "the son of Utu", where Utu, an old Sumerian god is later recorded as serving as a special protector to several of that city's later kings. Utu in one of the myths is analogous to Adam (see below), but also the brother or uncle of Inanna ("Lady of Heaven"), also of Uruk, where Inanna is analogous to Eve in one of the myths (see below).

In this hymn-myth, Utu and Inanna are analogous to Adam and Eve, for there is a Sumerian hymn called "Inanna and Utu" which contain an etiological (i.e. origin) myth describing how Inanna became the goddess of sex. At the beginning of the hymn, Inanna knows nothing of sex, so she begs her brother Utu to take her to Kur (the Sumerian underworld), so that she may taste the fruit of a tree that grows there, which will reveal to her all the secrets of sex.

Inanna is the daugher of Sin, the moon god. Sin (Akkadian) or Nanna (Sumerian) was associated with Ur, and was the father of the sun god Utu. These formed an astral triad of deities below the high trinity of Enlil, Enki and Anu.

However eventually Inanna became elevated to equivalence with the high trinity, as a usurper due to the political importance and size of Uruk. Inanna's main cult centres were the Eanna at Uruk; and after the flood, gained later temples at Nippur, Lagash, Shuruppak, Zabalam and Ur. Regular monthly festivals were celebrated in her honour.

Degenerate political polytheism originating in competing city states prioritized political interests over religious interests. Religion became subservient to politics. Hence Sumer gained the concept of a goddess of war, as Inanna of Uruk was.

With such anthropomorphic attributes, the Sumerian gods became maligant, especially Inanna, who set out to deliberately usurp the place of the older gods such as Enki (himself relegated to being a "god of magic") by stealing their "magic," and presumably their worship too. Inanna is an especially unholy goddess in the myths, being seen to be picky about choosing, her husband, and being the focus of courtly love poetry, and demanding idolatrous worship. She always was the antithesis of Jewish religion, and from her the cult of the goddess spread throughout all the nations that the Sumer civilization influenced.

Rom 1:21 "For although they knew God, they neither glorified him as God nor gave thanks to him, but their thinking became futile and their foolish hearts were darkened."

Noah and his family were monogamists and worshippers of Enki/Ea. The bible is keen to stress that eight people in Noah's family were saved from the flood. It shows they all only had but one wife. 1 Peter 3:20. (I personally do not take this to exclude servants, of which they likely had many to construct the ark.)

The flood covered a limited area of the earth's surface. It can be construed as covering the whole area of Sumer and beyond, where all the cities lay. Yet in being inscribed on tablets not touched by the flood, Sumerian polytheism re-emerged with a vengeance after the flood to haunt those descendants of Noah who resettled in Sumer.

Offline eik

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Re: Old Testament Heretics (and Saints)
« Reply #20 on: July 15, 2021, 01:01:35 PM »
Ba'al Idolatry in the Bible (Nimrod and his descendants) (I)
______________________________________________

An introduction to this topic can be found here: https://watchjerusalem.co.il/434-nimrod-found.

After the Flood, Ham, son of Noah was cursed (or rather Canaan his son was - Canaan being the brother of Cush). In Ham's son, Cush, geographical neighbour of Canaan, Rohl has  found an identification with Meskiag-kash-er (where Kash = biblical Cush), the first king of Uruk after the flood. Before the flood, Uruk had "king - priests". After the flood it just had "kings."

From Wiki, and the Sumerian King lists, the post-flood kings of Uruk start with Meskiag-kash-er whose descendants formed the primary ba'al gods of the bible, which are identified as living in c.3400-3100 BC era, whereas Rohl posits them as being a few centuries later.  Meskiag-kash-er was said to be the son of the god Utu, whom we have met (the Sun god), and founder of Uruk who received kingship from the 1st Dynasty of Kish.

As previously stated, Uruk was not a new city, but after the flood, it attracted a new dynasty and a new building phase, and one particularly devoted to glorifying Inanna, rather than Anu, an old god of the high Sumerian trinity. It was during the post-flood era that idolatry of Inanna spread throughout Sumer (which is Akkadian for the city states in the plain of Shinar).

The god Utu appears in the first stages of Sumerian writing, just before the flood. How the lineage of Ham descended so quickly into polytheism is a mystery that has yet to be explained. However Ham (meaning in Hebrew "hot") may himself be the ancestor on which "Utu" (the sun god) is based. The accounts of these early post-flood kings of Uruk were written by later historians who knew nothing but polytheism.

Not much is known of Meskiag-kash-er, except that it is believed that he later emigrated by boat to found Kush in Egypt, leaving his son Enmerkar in charge of Sumer. Much more is known of his son, King Enmer-kar, whom Rohl identifies as the biblical Nimrod (from "kar" meaning "hunter"). Enmer has the same consonants as Nimrod except for the last letter "d". Rohl suggests the "d" was added in Hebrew to infer Nimrod was a rebel. Some rabbinic commentators have connected the name Nimrod with a Hebrew word meaning 'rebel'. Of this Nimrod, the bible states the following:

Gen 10:8-10 "And Cush begat Nimrod: he began to be a mighty one in the earth. He was a mighty hunter before the Lord: wherefore it is said,"Even as Nimrod the mighty hunter before the Lord."And the beginning of his kingdom was Babel (i.e. Eridu - Bab-ilu = "Gate of God"), and Erech (i.e. Uruk), and Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar."

The Sumerian legends (Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta epic) disclose that the tower of Babel was devoted to all the gods, the entire Sumerian pantheon, which was a direct assault on Enki/Ea, the god of Adam and Noah. This and the character of Nimrod explains why the tower was frustrated.

"Nimrod was clearly a powerful ruler, establishing many of the initial post-Flood cities. The name "mighty one" connotes "tyrant." He was renowned as a hunter and protector, and the phrase "mighty hunter before the Lord" would better read "mighty hunter against and in place of the Lord." This man, as we will see further down, set himself up as a god over his people, and he worked directly to counter the will of God." https://watchjerusalem.co.il/434-nimrod-found.

"The Babylonian historian Berossus (l. c. 200 BC), who was a major source for later Greek historians, seems to be clearly referring to Eridu when he writes of "Babel" as "Babylon". His "Babylon" is in the southern marshes of the Euphrates and is patronized by the god of wisdom and fresh water. This association strongly suggests that Eridu is the original biblical Babel  as the story of the great Ziggurat of Amar-Sin [Amar-Sin third ruler of the Ur III Dynasty, circa 2000BC, was apparently the last to work on the ziggurat at Eridu after it had been abandoned by Nimrod] most likely passed down orally before Berossus set the legendary structure down in writing."
https://www.worldhistory.org/eridu/

From the bible, and from Berossus, the following seem likely (a) Nimrod was the builder of the tower of Babel, (b) Babel was in Eridu  (also called nun.ki - the "great city" which the later city of Babylon was also called), and (c) the great Ziggurat of Amar-Sin in Eridu (the last king who worked on it, from Ur, was called "immortal moon-god"), and which supplanted the temple to Enki in Eridu, is the true tower of Babel.



https://watchjerusalem.co.il/434-nimrod-found
https://www.worldhistory.org/eridu/

Offline eik

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Re: Old Testament Heretics (and Saints)
« Reply #21 on: July 16, 2021, 12:37:41 PM »
Ba'al Idolatry in the Bible (Nimrod and his descendants) (II)
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I have mentioned that "Babel" in the Hebrew derives from Bab Ilu in Babylonian, meaning "Gate of God." However in the bible there is a play on words, as "babel" sounds similar to  Hebrew word for "confused"  בלל "balal" ("to confuse"). Genesis 11:9: "Therefore its name was called Babel, because there the Lord confused the language of all the earth." 
https://www.britannica.com/place/Bab-ilu

Babel is frequenly confused with Babylon, the city. This rose to prominence after 2000BC which was long after the  ziggurat of Enmerker, circa 1000 years earlier. Babylon and Eridu were both called by similar names. Eridu (Cuneiform: NUN.KI; Sumerian: Eridu; Akkadian: Ir'tu modern Arabic: Tell Abu Shahrain). NUN.KI means the "great place". The later Babylonian temple to Marduk, the Babylonian god, was called E-Sagila, (the "lofty house"). The same "NUN.KI" was understood to mean the city of Babylon.

The much later Greek version of the King-list by Berossus (c. 200 BC) reads "Babylon" in place of "Eridu" in the earlier versions, as the name of the oldest city where "the kingship was lowered from Heaven".

See also https://aratta.wordpress.com/2015/07/14/the-place-of-eridu-nun-ki-in-mythology-and-reality/

So it is easy to see how confusion arose in antiquity between Babylon and Eridu, a confusion which persists to this day. It is instructive to learn what Josephus (Antiquities of the Jews: Book I) has to say about Nimrod and the Tower of Babel. Note he make the same error as Berossus in respect of Eridu and Babylon.

Josephus (Antiquities of the Jews ? Book I)
__________________________________

1. Now the sons of Noah were three, Shem and Japhet, and Ham, born one hundred years before the deluge.

2 These first of all descended from the mountains into the plains, and fixed their habitation there; and persuaded others, who were greatly afraid of the lower grounds on account of the flood, and so were very loth to come down from the higher places, to venture to follow their examples. Now the plain, in which they first dwelt, was called Shinar. God also commanded them to send colonies abroad, for the through peopling of the earth; that they might not raise seditions among themselves, but might cultivate a great part of the earth, and enjoy its fruits after a plentiful manner. But they were so ill instructed, that they did not obey God.

3. For which reason they fell into calamities, and were made sensible by experience of what sin they had been guilty of. For when they flourished with a numerous youth, God admonished them again to send out colonies. But they imagining the prosperity they enjoyed was not derived from the favour of God, but supposing that their own power was the proper cause of the plentiful condition they were in, did not obey him. Nay they added to this their disobedience to the divine will, the suspicion that they were therefore ordered to send out separate colonies, that, being divided asunder, they might the more easily be oppressed.

4. Now it was Nimrod who excited them to such an affront and contempt of God. He was the grand-son of Ham, the son of Noah: a bold man, and of great strength of hand. He persuaded them not to ascribe it to God, as if it was through his means that they were happy; but to believe that it was their own courage which procured that happiness. He also gradually changed the government into tyranny; seeing no other way of turning men from the fear of God, but to bring them into a constant dependence on his own power. He also said, "He would be revenged on God, if he should have a mind to drown the world again: for that he would build a Tower too high for the waters to be able to reach; and that he would avenge himself on God for destroying their fore-fathers."

5. Now the multitude were very ready to follow the determination of Nimrod, and to esteem it a piece of cowardice to submit to God: and they built a Tower; neither sparing any pains, nor being in any degree negligent about the work. And, by reason of the multitude of hands employed in it, it grew very high, sooner than any one could expect. But the thickness of it was so great, and it was so strongly built, that thereby its great height seemed, upon the view, to be less than it really was. It was built of burnt brick, cemented together with morter, made of bitumen; that it might not be liable to admit water. When God saw that they acted so madly, he did not resolve to destroy them utterly; since they were not grown wiser by the destruction of the former sinners: but he caused a tumult among them, by producing in them diverse languages; and causing, that through the multitude of those languages, they should not be able to understand one another.

6. The place wherein they built the Tower is now called Babylon: because of the confusion of that language which they readily understood before: for the Hebrews mean by the word Babel, Confusion. The Sibyll also makes mention of this tower,  and of the confusion of the language when she says thus: "When all men were of one language, some of them built an high tower, as if they would thereby ascend up to heaven. But the Gods sent storms of wind, and overthrew the tower, and gave every one his peculiar language. And for this reason it was that the city was called Babylon." But as to the plan of Shinar, in the country of Babylonia, Hesti?us mentions it, when he says thus, "Such of the Priests as were saved took the sacred vessels of Jupiter Enyalius, and came to Shinar of Babylonia."
https://www.britannica.com/place/Bab-ilu
https://aratta.wordpress.com/2015/07/14/the-place-of-eridu-nun-ki-in-mythology-and-reality/

Offline eik

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Re: Old Testament Heretics (and Saints)
« Reply #22 on: July 17, 2021, 09:13:22 AM »
Ba'al Idolatry in the Bible (Nimrod and his descendants) (III)
_______________________________________________

The character of Nimrod is exposed in Josephus's testimony.

"He persuaded them not to ascribe it to God, as if it was through his means that they were happy; but to believe that it was their own courage which procured that happiness. He also gradually changed the government into tyranny; seeing no other way of turning men from the fear of God, but to bring them into a constant dependence on his own power. He also said, "He would be revenged on God, if he should have a mind to drown the world again: for that he would build a Tower too high for the waters to be able to reach; and that he would avenge himself on God for destroying their fore-fathers."

So dependency on God was replaced by Nimrod with dependency on government and on man's own work. This was conjoined to elevating the Anunnaki, the actual descendants of Adam and Eve, and Adam and Eve themselves, into gods. Eve herself was the basis for Ninhursag "lady of the mountain.", originally known as Damkina, (meaning "true wife"), the consort of the god Enki, who was replaced by a deified Adam.

Whereas Inanna of Uruk was far more loosely based on Eve, bearing only a limited comparison in the tree of knowledge legend with Otu. She was a more pagan conception, doubtless preserving the pre-Adamite idea of the capricious fertility goddess. She has an uncertain provenance: she is

"sometimes the daughter of the sky god An, sometimes his wife; in other myths she is the daughter of Nanna, god of the moon, or of the wind god, Enlil. In her earliest manifestations she was associated with the storehouse and thus personified as the goddess of dates, wool, meat, and grain; the storehouse gates were her emblem. he was also the goddess of rain and thunderstorms, leading to her association with An, the sky god, and was often pictured with the lion, whose roar resembled thunder. .... Inanna was also a fertility figure. She was characterized as young, beautiful, and impulsive, never as helpmate or mother."
https://www.britannica.com/topic/Ishtar-Mesopotamian-goddess

Inanna was the antithesis of Enki of Eridu. She was a goddess of war. Nimrod was deeply attached to the goddess Inanna and doubtless the principal idea of his tower of Babel was to syncretize Enki worship with Inanna worship, and so destroy Enki worship. Nimrod was also the progenitor of expeditions of conquest, a characteristic that would also characterize the successor kingdoms to the Sumerian city states, i.e. Assyria and Babylon.

Nimrod's venture into conquest outside of the Sumerian cities of the plain of Shinar is described in the Sumerian account of "Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta". It is one of a series of accounts describing the conflicts between Enmerkar (Nimrod), king of Unug-Kulaba (the Anu District of Uruk), and the unnamed king of Aratta, which Rohl identifies as a place immediately south of Lake Urmia and so nextdoor to the Garden of Eden.
See http://www.accuracyingenesis.com/ararat.html

Essentially Nimrod threatens the lord of Aratta with conquest unless he sends Enmerkar (Nimrod) a vast amount of precious stones for the adornment of his pagan temples. He also persuades him that Inanna, his god, who was also worshipped in Aratta in some form, had forsaken Aratta and confirmed her allegiance to Uruk. Eventually after being rebuffed, and after many journeys and bargaining, he does eventually invade Arrata, with his eventual successor Lugalbanda, another later deified Sumerian king of Uruk who, according to various sources of Mesopotamian literature, was the father of Gilgamesh.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lugalbanda

So Nimrod the Hunter, the first potentate on earth per Gen 10:8, is increasingly is seen as the antithesis of God. After his death he was deified by the people of Eridu as Asar (meaning 'son') or Enki (according to Rohl). He is identified with Assyrian king Ninus (Greek form of his name).

He was also deified as "Ninurta (Sumerian: NIN.URTA, meaning of this name not known), also known as Ningirsu (Sumerian: NIN.GIR.SU, meaning "Lord of Girsu"), who was a Mesopotamian god associated with farming, healing, hunting, law, scribes. In the earliest records, he is a god of agriculture and healing, who releases humans from sickness and the power of demons. In later times, as Mesopotamia grew more militarized, he became a warrior deity, though he retained many of his earlier agricultural attributes. He was regarded as the son of the chief god Enlil and his main cult center in Sumer was the Eshumesha temple in Nippur. Ningirsu's temple was in Lagash (where per Rohl he was given the epithet Enmersi after his original name).

"Ninurta (originally Nimurda) became beloved by the Assyrians as a formidable warrior. The Assyrian king Ashurnasirpal II (ruled 883-859 BC) built a massive temple for him at Calah (Kalhu - one of Nimrod's principal cities), which became his most important cult center from then on. After the fall of the Assyrian Empire, Ninurta's statues were torn down and his temples abandoned because he had become too closely associated with the Assyrian regime, which many conquered peoples saw as tyrannical and oppressive."

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ninurta
https://faith-happens.com/nimrod-more-than-historys-first-encounter-with-the-antichrist/
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Nimrod




https://www.britannica.com/topic/Ishtar-Mesopotamian-goddess
http://www.accuracyingenesis.com/ararat.html
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lugalbanda
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ninurta
https://faith-happens.com/nimrod-more-than-historys-first-encounter-with-the-antichrist/
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Nimrod

Offline eik

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Re: Old Testament Heretics (and Saints)
« Reply #23 on: July 18, 2021, 07:14:10 PM »
Ba'al Idolatry in the Bible (Nimrod and his descendants) (IV)
_______________________________________________

Here I will briefly allude to theories as to the death of Nimrod. There are various ideas, a likely erroneous one coming from the pseudepigraphical and it seems fictional "book of Jasher" referring to Esau. This account is almost certainly fiction. The various theories, which serve to introduce further topics on Nimrod, are conveniently summarized in this post from https://www.enotes.com/homework-help/how-did-nimrod-of-babylon-die-441414.

"Many religious scholars agree that Nimrod didn't die a natural death. Jewish tradition says that Nimrod died after a gnat entered his brain and gnawed on it. Some Jewish historians claim that Nimrod suffered from the pain for forty years before he died. Islamic tradition largely supports this interpretation but replaces the gnat with a mosquito.

In the Bible (Genesis 10), Nimrod is described as a mighty hunter. He possessed extraordinary strength and ruled over the kingdoms of Babel, Erek, Akkad, and Kalneh in the land of Shinar. However, there's no discussion of how Nimrod met his end.

Both the Bible and first-century historian Flavius Josephus agree that Nimrod was a rebel leader. Josephus maintained that it was Nimrod who set up the world's first totalitarian government.

Meanwhile, the extra-biblical text of Jasher says that Esau beheaded Nimrod with his sword. Other religious scholars argue that Nimrod was actually murdered by his great-uncle, Shem.

According to this theory, Shem had Nimrod's body cut into pieces and sent out to the nations as a warning against idolatry. Religious scholar Alexander Hislop says that Nimrod was actually Ninus, a Babylonian king.

Hislop wasn't the first to make the claim. Many historians from antiquity and the Middle Ages believed that Nimrod was Ninus and the founder of idol worship. Near the end of the first century, Clement, in his Clementine Recognitions, alleged that the Greeks knew Nimrod as Ninus.

This Ninus, according to Clement, introduced all magic arts to mankind.

As can be seen, there's no consensus on how Nimrod died. That said, religious scholars and historians concede that Nimrod didn't die a natural death, he rebelled against God and taught others to do the same, and he possessed extraordinary height and strength."



Hislop mentions Shem as the judicial executor of Nimrod, and also links Nimrod to "Ninus" (known to the Greek historians), the eponymous founder of Nineveh, as does the bible also refer to Nimrod and his descendants in connection with the founding of Nineveh, the capital of the much later Assyrian empire.

Micah (Mic 5:6) the prophet calls Assyria the land of Nimrod. I shall investigate these assertions in further posts.

Gen 10:9 "He was a mighty hunter before the LORD: wherefore it is said, Even as Nimrod the mighty hunter before the LORD."
Gen 10:10 "And the beginning of his kingdom was Babel, and Erech, and Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar."
Gen 10:11 "Out of that land went forth Asshur, and builded Nineveh, and the city Rehoboth, and Calah,"
Gen 10:12 "And Resen between Nineveh and Calah: the same is a great city."
https://www.enotes.com/homework-help/how-did-nimrod-of-babylon-die-441414

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